Literature

in English Society

Before 1660

 

A Historical Survey

 

 

Brother Anthony, of Taizé

 

 

 

Part Two: The Renaissance 1485 - 1660

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Sogang University Press

Seoul,  Korea



 

 

 

 

 

 

Contents

 

 

Introduction

The Early Tudor Period.................................................................. 1

Henry VIII........................................................................ 3

Henry's break with Rome........................................ 5

The Dissolution of the Monasteries.......................... 6

Renaissance Scotland......................................................... 7

England after Henry VIII..................................................... 8

Humanism in Northern Europe and England.......................... 9

Thomas More...................................................... 11

Utopia................................................................ 12

Juan Luis Vives.................................................... 22

Early 16th century lyric poetry........................................... 24

John Skelton........................................................ 25

Sir Thomas Wyatt................................................ 29

Henry Howard, Earl of Surrey .............................. 35

English Translations of the Bible......................................... 39

 

The Age of Elizabeth

The Church..................................................................... 43

John Foxe: The Book of Martyrs............................ 46

The Queen's Power.......................................................... 47

Mary Queen of Scots ...................................................... 48

The Netherlands and France.............................................. 49

Elizabeth and International Politics...................................... 49

The Death of Mary Queen of Scots .................................. 51

The Spanish Armada......................................................... 51

The last years of Elizabeth's reign....................................... 52

 

Early Elizabethan Poetry................................................................ 55

Gascoigne, Googe, and Turberville......................... 55

The Mirror For Magistrates................................... 58

Edmund Spenser.............................................................. 61

The Shepheardes Calendar.................................... 62

Italian epic poetry................................................. 66

The Faerie Queene............................................... 69

The Two Cantos of Mutabilitie.............................. 74

Amoretti and Epithalamion.................................... 75

 

European Prose Fiction................................................................. 81

 

Sir Philip Sidney........................................................................... 85

The Old Arcadia.................................................. 88

The Defence of Poesy........................................... 90

Astrophel and Stella............................................. 93

The New Arcadia................................................. 99

 

Drama before Shakespeare.......................................................... 103

Early Comedies and Tragedies.............................. 104

Gorboduc.......................................................... 106

Further developments.......................................... 109

The construction of the theaters........................... 110

The companies of actors..................................... 111

The University Wits............................................ 113

Christopher Marlowe.......................................... 113

Thomas Kyd...................................................... 123

 

William Shakespeare .................................................................. 131

A chronology of Shakespeare's works.................. 135

Editions: quartos and folios.................................. 141

Shakespeare's sources......................................... 142

The Sonnets....................................................... 145

 

Later Elizabethan Literature.......................................................... 149

Lyric Poetry................................................................... 149

Longer Elizabethan poems............................................... 163

Marlowe's Hero and Leander............................... 163

Shakespeare's longer poems................................. 166

Sir John Davies.................................................. 170

Elizabethan translations.................................................... 172

 

The Seventeenth Century ........................................................... 177

Social History................................................................. 177

The Stuarts.................................................................... 177

The Civil War................................................................. 178

The Commonwealth........................................................ 180

The Restoration.............................................................. 181

Whigs and Tories........................................................... 183

The Glorious Revolution.................................................. 184

The end of the court....................................................... 185

 

John Donne............................................................................... 189

Donne the secular poet.................................................... 190

Donne's Metaphysical style.............................................. 203

Donne and the Church.................................................... 205

The Holy Sonnets........................................................... 207

Other religious poems..................................................... 209

Donne's Prose................................................................ 209

 

Ben Jonson................................................................................ 213

Every Man in His Humour............................................... 214

Prison and after.............................................................. 216

Volpone......................................................................... 220

Epicoene....................................................................... 222

The Alchemist................................................................ 222

The Middle Years........................................................... 223

The Later Years.............................................................. 232

 

 Jacobean and Caroline Drama..................................................... 235

The social background.................................................... 235

Francis Beaumont........................................................... 237

John Fletcher................................................................. 237

Thomas Middleton.......................................................... 239

Philip Massinger............................................................. 241

Thomas Heywood.......................................................... 241

Thomas Dekker.............................................................. 242

John Marston................................................................. 243

John Webster................................................................. 244

John Ford...................................................................... 245

James Shirley................................................................. 246

Sir William Davenant....................................................... 246

Anthony Munday............................................................ 247

William Rowley.............................................................. 247

Cyril Tourneur............................................................... 248

Richard Brome............................................................... 248

Thomas Nabbes............................................................. 249

Thomas Killigrew........................................................... 249

Restoration drama........................................................... 249

Major themes of Jacobean drama..................................... 251

 

17th Century Lyric Poetry........................................................... 253

Religious poets............................................................. 254

George Herbert................................................... 254

Richard Crashaw................................................ 264

Henry Vaughan................................................... 267

Thomas Traherne................................... 273

The "Sons of Ben" and the "Cavalier Poets"....................... 274

Robert Herrick................................................... 276

Thomas Carew................................................... 279

Sir John Suckling............................................... 282

Richard Lovelace................................................ 283

Poets of the Mid-century................................................. 285

Edmund Waller................................................... 285

Sir John Denham................................................ 290

Abraham Cowley .............................................. 292

Andrew Marvell.................................................. 295

 

John Milton................................................................................ 303

On the Morning of Christ's Nativity.................................. 303

L'Allegro and Il Penseroso............................................... 307

Comus........................................................................... 310

Lycidas.......................................................................... 311

The Civil War and the Commonwealth.............................. 313

Paradise Lost................................................................. 316

Paradise Regained and Samson Agonistes......................... 325

 

Seventeenth Century Thinkers...................................................... 331

The European background............................................... 331

Francis Bacon................................................................ 337

Sir Thomas Browne........................................................ 343

Thomas Hobbes............................................................. 347

The Cambridge Platonists................................................ 351

John Locke.................................................................... 353

Sir Isaac Newton............................................................ 354

 

Epilogue: From Romance to Novel................................................ 357

 

 






 

 

 


Index

 

Act of Uniformity

under Elizabeth            44

Admiral's Men, The                112

Aeneid (Surrey's translation)     38

Alencon, duke of

woos Elizabeth            50

Alleyn, Edward                      112

Amoretti (Spenser's)                75

Anne (Queen)                        185

Anne of Cleves                          4

Arcadia (Sannazaro's)              82

Arcadia, The New (Sidney)      99

Arcadia, The Old (Sidney)        88

Ariosto, Ludovico                    66

Armada, The Spanish               50

defeat of                     51

Arraignment of Paris, The (Peele) 113

Astrophel and Stella                 93

Authorized Version (Bible)        40

Bacon, Francis                      337

Bandello, Matteo                      82

Beaumont, Francis                 237

Behn, Mrs. Aphra                  360

Bembo, Pietro                         24

Bible

English translations      39

English versions of      39

King James Version     40

Bishop's Bible, The                  40

Blank verse

first used by Surrey     37

Boiardo                                   66

Boleyn, Anne                            4

Book of Common Prayer

under Elizabeth            44

Bosworth, battle of                    1

Brome, Richard                     248

Browne, Sir Thomas              343

Bunyan, John                        359

Burbage, James                     112

Byrd, William                        149

Calvin, Jean                              7

Cambises (Preston)                110

Cambridge Platonists, The      351

Camden, William                    213

Campion, Thomas                  152

Canzoniere (Petrarch's)

influence of                 24

Carew, Thomas                     279

Cavalier Poets                        274

Cecil, Sir William                     49

Chapman, George

Translations of Homer 174

Characters (Theophrastus)      358

Charles I                               177

executed                   180

Charles II                              181

Charles V (Emperor)                  3

Civil War, The                       178

Colet, John                               9

Common Prayer, Book of           8

Commonwealth, The              180

Comus                                  310

Copernicus, Nicolas               331

Coverdale                               39

Coverdale, Miles                      39

Cowley, Abraham                  292

Cranmer, Thomas (Archbishop)

execution of                  9

issues Prayer Book        8

made Archbishop          4


Crashaw, Richard                  264

Cromwell, Oliver

as Lord Protector       181

in Scotland and Ireland 181

leads new army         179

Daniel, Samuel                       154

Davenant, Sir William             246

Davies, Sir John                    170

Decameron (Boccaccio's)         81

Defence of Poesy, The             90

Defoe, Daniel                        360

Dekker, Thomas                    242

Deloney, Thomas                   357

Denham, Sir John                  290

Descartes, Rene                     335

Devereux, Robert

see: earl of Essex         52

Diana (Montemayor's)              83

Discordia concors                  204

Dissociation of sensibility

Eliot's theory of         204

Doctor Faustus (Marlowe)      117

Don Quixote (Cervantes)          83

Donne, John

life and works           189

Metaphysical style      203

secular poems           194

Douai Version (Bible)               40

Drake, Sir Francis                   50

Drama

Caroline                    235

Jacobean                   235

Drayton, Michael                   156

Dudley, Lord Robert

see: Leicester, Earl of   49

Ecatommiti, Gli

by Giraldi                    82

Edward II (Marlowe)             122

Edward VI

birth of                         4

reign of                        8

Elizabeth Tudor (Queen)

becomes queen             9

birth of                         4

reign of                      43

Elizabethan Poetry

later lyrics                 149

Elizabethan Settlement              43

Epic (Italian)                           66

Epithalamion (Spenser's)          75

Erasmus, Desiderius                  9

Essex, earl of                          52

Euphues (Lyly)                      113

European Renaissance Fiction   81

Faerie Queene, The                  69

Ferrar, Nicholas                     256

Fletcher, John                       237

Ford, John                            245

Foxe, John

Book of Martyrs          46

Galileo Galilei                         334

Gammer Gurton's Needle        104

Gargantua (Rabelais)                84

Gascoigne, George                  55

as dramatist               109

Geneva Bible                           40

Geneva Bible, The                    40

Gerusalemme Liberata

outline of                    68

Giraldi, Giambattista                 82

Globe Theatre

construction of          133

Globe Theatre, The


construction of          133

Glorious Revolution, The        184

Golding, Arthur

Metamorphoses         172

Googe, Barnabe                       56

Gorboduc                             106

Great Bible, The                      39

Great Fire of London              182

Great Plague, The                  182

Greene, Robert               132, 357

attacks Shakespeare   132

Hakluyt, Richard                    359

Harvey, William                     346

Henry VII                                 2

Henry VIII                                3

wives of                       4

Henslowe, Philip                    111

Herbert of Cherbury, Lord      255

Herbert, Edward                    342

Herbert, George                     254

Herrick, Robert                      276

Heywood, Thomas                 241

Hobbes, Thomas                    347

Hoby, Sir Thomas

Courtier, The             172

Hooker, Richard                      45

Howard, Catherine                     4

Howard, Henry (Earl of Surrey) 35

Huguenots                              49

Humanism

in England                    9

Jacobean drama

major themes             251

James I                                 177

proclaimed king           53

James II                               184

Jew of Malta, The (Marlowe)  122

Jocasta (Gascoigne)               109

Johnson, Dr. Samuel

Life of Cowley          292

on the metaphysical poets            203

Jonson, Ben

Alchemist, THe          223

Bartholomew Fair      224

Cynthia's Revels        217

Epicoene; or, The Silent Woman  222

Epigrams                  224

Every Man in His Humour           214

Every Man Out of His Humour    216

Forest, The               227

life and works           213

Pleasure Reconciled to Virtue       230

Underwood               232

Volpone                    220

Kempe, Will                          132

Killigrew, Thomas                  249

King James Bible, The              40

King's Men, The                    133

Knox, John                               8

Kyd, Thomas

life and works of       123

L'Allegro                               307

Laud, Archbishop William       178

Leicester, Earl of                     49

Leviathan, The (Hobbes)         348

Little Gidding                         256

Locke, John                          353

Long Parliament, The             179


Lord Chamberlain's Company, The           112

Lovelace, Richard                  283

Lucrece                                168

Luther, Martin                           3

Lycidas                                 311

Lyly, John                             113

Lyric poetry

16th century English    24

17th century              253

Marlowe, Christopher

Hero and Leander       163

life and works of       113

Passionate Shepherd, The            159

Marston, John                       243

Marvell, Andrew                    295

Mary Queen of Scots

life of                         48

Mary Queen of Scots

death of                      51

Mary Tudor (Queen)

birth of                         3

reign of                        8

Mary, Queen of Scots                8

Massacre of St Bartholomew    49

Massinger, Philip                   241

Meres, Francis

lists Shakespeare's plays 132

writes about Shakespeare 132

Metaphysical style

characteristics of       203

Middleton, Thomas                239

Milton, John                          303

blindness of               315

Comus                      310

Il Penseroso              307

L'Allegro                   307

Lycidas                     311

Nativity Ode              303

Paradise Lost             316

Paradise Regained      325

Samson Agonistes      326

Mirror For Magistrates, The     58

Monasteries, Dissolution of        6

Montaigne, Michel de             333

Montemayor, Jorge de             83

More, Thomas                        11

Moseley, Humphrey               275

Munday, Anthony                  247

Mutability Cantos                     74

Nabbes, Thomas                    249

Nash, Thomas                       358

Nativity Ode, The                  303

Netherlands

Origins of war in         49

New Arcadia, The                   99

Newton, Sir Isaac                  354

Northumberland, duke of

Protector                      8

Norton, Thomas                    106

Novella (Italian)

in the renaissance        81

Old Arcadia, The                     88

Old Wives Tale (Peele)           113

Orlando Furioso                      66

outline of                    67

Orlando Innamorato                 66

outline of                    66

Oroonoko                             360

Painter, William                       84

Pantagruel (Rabelais)                84


Paradise Lost                         316

Paradise Regained                  325

Parr, Catherine                          4

Pascal, Blaise                         346

Peele, George                        113

Penseroso, Il                         307

Pettie, George                         84

Picaresque novel (Spanish)       83

Pickering, John                      110

Pilgrim's Progress, The          359

Pindaric Odes                        292

Plautus

influence of               103

Population

growth in Tudor England 1

Preston, Thomas                   110

Queen's Men, The                  112

Rabelais, Francois                    83

Ralegh, Sir Walter                    52

life and works           160

Nymph's Reply, The  159

Ralph Roister Doister             104

Reformation in England              5

Restoration drama                  249

Restoration, The                    181

Rheims Version (Bible)             40

Robinson Crusoe                   360

Rose Theatre, The

construction of          111

Rowley, William                    247

Royal Society, The                 351

Sackville, Thomas                  106

in the Mirror for Magistrates        59

Samson Agonistes                  325

Sannazaro, Iacopo                   25

Sannazaro, Jacopo                   82

Scotland

Renaissance and Reformation in   7

Seneca

influence of               105

Seymour, Jane                          4

Shakespeare, William

chronological list of plays 135

Editions of                141

life and works of       131

longer poems             166

Lucrece                    166

Phoenix and Turtle     140

songs                       150

Sonnets                    145

use of sources           142

Venus and Adonis      166

Shepheardes Calendar              62

Shirley, James                       246

Sidney, Sir Philip                50, 85

Skelton, John                          25

Somerset, Lord

Protector                      8

Sonnet form

introduced into England 31

Sons of Ben                          274

Spain

rise of                        50

Spanish Tragedy, The (Kyd)   123

Spenser, Edmund                    61

Strafford, the earl of              178

Stuarts, The                          177

Suckling, Sir John                  282


Surrey

see Howard, Henry      35

Tamburlaine (Marlowe)          114

Tarlton, Richard                    112

Tasso, Torquato                      68

Taverner's Bible                       40

Terence

influence of               103

Theatre, The

construction of          110

Theophrastus                        358

Tories                                   183

Tottel's Miscellany                   55

Tourneur, Cyril                      248

Translations

Elizabethan                172

Tudor England                          1

Turberville, George                  58

Tyndal                                    39

Tyndal, William                       39

Udall, Nicholas                      104

Unfortunate Traveller, The      358

University Wits, The              113

Utopia (More's)                       12

Vaughan, Henry                     267

Vega, Garcilaso de la                82

Venus and Adonis                  166

Virgin Queen

Elizabeth as                 47

Vives, Juan Luis                      22

Waller, Edmund                     285

Walsingham, Sir Francis           49

Walton, Isaak

Life of Herbert           257

Webster, John                       244

Whigs                                   183

William and Mary                   185

Woodes, Nathaniel                 109

Wren, Sir Christopher            182

Wyatt, Sir Thomas                  29

Wyclif                                    39

Zwingli, Ulrich                          4