Letter No. IV.



In conformity with the intimation communicated by Sir Thomas Smith to William Adams, of the intention of the East India Fellowship to seek trade with Japon, Captain John Saris, in command of the Clove, was despatched on a mission to the Emperor : being accredited with a letter, and charged with presents, from the Sovereign of England, James the First. The Clove came to anchor in the vicinity of Firando, one of the Japonese islands, on the 11th of June, 1613. The arrival of the vessel was marked by many circumstances of highly interesting character ; and the commander was greeted with no less cordiality than courtesy. These matters are fully set forth in his narrative, which is as follows :




The ninth [of June, 1613] in the morning wee had sight of land, bearing north north-east, and sixe great islands on a ranke. From the island we descried yesternight north-east and south-west, and at the northermost end of them all, many small rockes and hummockes, and in the bay to the eastward of the hummockes we saw an high land bearing east, east by south, and east south-east, which is the island called Xima in the Plats, but called by the naturals Mashma, and the island aforesaid, north north-east, is called Segue or Amaxay : it lyeth east by north, and west by south, with many small islands and rockes on the southerne side of them, and is distant from the island with the steepe point, (which wee did see the eight day) south south-west twelue leagues, the winde calme all night, yet we got to the northward, as wee supposed, by the helpe of a current or tide. The tenth, by breake of day the outward-most land to the westward did beare north by east ten leagues off, the wind at north-east by north : at nine, a gale at south, wee steered north by west, and had sight of two hummockes without the point. Then wee steered north north-west, and soone after came foure great fisher-boats aboord, about fiue tunnes apeece in burthen, they sailed with one saile, which stood like a skiffe saile, and skuld with foure oares on a side, their oares resting vpon a pinne fastned on the toppe of the boats side, the head of which pinne was so let into the middle part of the oare, that the oare did hang in his iust poize, so that the labour of the rower is much lesse, then otherwise it must be ; yet doe they make farre greater speed then our people with rowing, and performe their worke standing, as ours doe sitting, so that they take the lesse roome. They told vs that we were before the entrance of Nangasaque, bearing north north-east, and the straights of Arima, north-east by north, and the high hill, which we did see yesterday, is vpon the island called Vszideke, which maketh the straights of Arima, where at the norther-most end is good riding, and at the south end is the going into Cachinoch. To this noone we haue made a north-way sixe leagues. Wee agreed with two of the masters of the fisher-boats (for thirtie rialls of eight a piece in money, and rice for their food) to pilot vs into Firando ; which agreement made, their people entred our shippe, and performed voluntarily their labour, as readily as any of our mariners. We steered north by west, the pilots making account to be thirtie leagues off Firando. One of the foure boats which came aboord vs, did belong to the Portugals, living at Langasaque, and were new Christians, and thought that our ship had been the Macau ship ; but finding the contrary, would vpon no intreatie stay, but made hast backe againe to aduise them.

The eleuenth, about three of the clocke in the afternoone, we cam to an anchor halfe a league short oiFirando, the tide so spent that we could not get further in : soone after I was visited by the old king Foyne Sama, and his nephew Tone Sama, gouernour then of the Iland vnder the old king. They were attended with fortie boats or gallyes, rowed some with ten, some with fifteene oares on a side : when they drew neare to the ship, the king commanded all, but the two wherein himselfe and his nephew were, to fall a sterne, and they only entred the ship, both of them in silk gownes, girt to them with a shirt, and a paire of breeches of flaxen cloath next their bodies. Either of them had two cattans or swords of that countrey by his side, the one of halfe a yard long, the other about a quarter. They wore no bands, the fore-parts of their heads were shauen to the crowne, and the rest of their haire, which was very long, was gathered together and bound vp on a knot behind, wearing neither hat nor turbant, but bare-headed. The king was aged about seuentie two yeeres, his nephew or grand-child, that gouerned under him, was about two and twentie yeeres old, and either of them had his gouernour with him, who had command ouer their slaues, as they appointed him. Their manner and curtesie in saluting was after their manner, which is this. First, in presence of him whom they are to salute, they put off their shooes (stockings they weare none) and then clapping their right hand within their left, they put them downe towards their knees, and so wagging or mouing of their hands a little to and fro, they stooping, steppe with small steps sideling from the partie saluted, aud crie Augh, Augh. I led them into my cabbin, where I had prepared a banquet for them, and a good consort of musicke, which much delighted them. They bade me welcome, and promised me kind entertainment. I deliuered our kings letters to the king of Firando, which he receiued with great ioy, saying hee would not open it till Auge came, who could interpret the same vnto him ; this Auge is, in their language, a pilot, being one William Adams, an English man, who, passing with a Flemming through the South Sea, by mutiny and disorder of the marriners shee remained in that countrey, and was seised vpon by the emperour about twelue years before. The king hauing stayed aboord about an houre and a halfe, tooke his leaue : he was no sooner ashoare, but all his nobilitie, attended with a multitude of souldiers, entered the ship, euery man of worth brought his present with him, some venison, some wild-fowle, some wild-boare, the largest and fattest that euer any of vs had seene, some fruits, fish, etc. They did much admire our shippe, and made as if they had neuer seene it sufficiently. We being pestered with the number of these visiters, I sent to the king, requesting him that order might bee taken to remoue them, and to preuent all inconueniences that might happen. Whereupon hee sent a guardian, (being a principall man of his owne guard) with charge to remain and lye aboord, that no injury might be offered vnto vs ; and caused a proclamation to be made in the towne to the same effect. The same night Henrick Brower, captain of the Dutch factory there, came aboord to visite me, or rather to see what passed betwixt the king and vs. I did write the same day to master Adams (being then at Edoo, which is very neare three hundred leagues from Firando) to let him vnderstand of our arriual. King Foyne sent it away the next day by his Admirail to Osackay, the first port of note vpon the chiefe island, and then by post vp into the land to Edoo : giuing the emperour likewise to vnderstand of our being there, and cause thereof. The twelfth in the morning, there was brought aboord such abundance of fish, and so cheape as we could desire. We weighed and set sail for the road. The king sent at the least threscore great boats or gallyes very well mand, to bring vs into the harbor. I doubted what the cause of their coming might be, and was sending off the skiffe to comand them not to come neare the ship, but the king being the head-most, weaued with his handkercher, and willed the rest to attend, and himselfe comming aboord, told me that he had commanded them to come to tow our ship in about a point, some what dangerous, by reason of the force of the tide, which was such, that hauing a stiffe gale of wind, yet we could not stemme it, and comming into the eddie, we should haue been set vpon the rockes. So we sent hawsers aboord them, and they fell to worke. In the meane while the king did breake his fast with me. Being at an anchor, I would haue requited the people for their paines, but the king would not suffer them to take any thing. Wee anchored before the towne in fiue fathome, so near the shoare, that we might talke to the people in their houses. We saluted the towne with nine peeces of ordnance, but were not answered, for they haue no ordnance heere, nor any fort, but barricados only for small shot. Our ground heere was ozie. Diuers noblemen came to bid me welcome, whereof two were of extraordinary account, called Nobusane and Simmadone, who were very well entertained, and at parting held very great state, one staying aboord whilest the other was landed ; their children and chiefs followers in the like manner. There came continually such a world of people aboord, both men and women, as that we were not able to go vpon the decks : round about the ship was furnished with boats full of people, admiring much the head and sterne of the ship. I gaue leaue to diuers women of the better sort to come into my Cabbin, where the picture of Venus, with her sonne Cupid, did hang somewhat wantonly set out in a large frame. They thinking it to bee our ladie and her sonne, fell downe and worshipped it, with shewes of great deuotion, telling me in a whispering manner (that some of their own companions which were not so, might not heare) that they were Christianos : whereby we perceiued them to be Christians, conuerted by the Portugall Iesuits.

The king came aboord againe, and brought foure chiefe women with him. They were attired in gownes of silke, clapt the one skirt ouer the other, and so girt to them, bare-legged, only a paire of halfe buskins bound with silke riband about their instep ; their haire very blacke, and very long, tyed vp in a knot vpon the crowne in a comely manner : their heads no where shauen as the mens were. They were well faced, handed, and footed; cleare skind and white, but wanting colour, which they amend by arte. Of stature low, but very fat ; very curteous in behauiour, not ignorant of the respect to be giuen vnto persons according to their fashion. The king requested that none might stay in the cabbin, saue myself and my Linguist, who was borne in Iapan, and was brought from Bantam in our ship thither, being well skild in the Mallayan tongue, wherein he deliuered to mee what the king spoke vnto him in the Iapan language. The kings women seemed to be somewhat bashfull, but he willed them to bee frolicke. They sung diuers songs, and played vpon certain instruments (whereof one did much resemble our lute) being bellyed like it, but longer in the necke, and fretted like ours, but had only foure gut strings. Their fingring with the left hand like ours, very nimbly, but the right hand striketh with an iuory bone, as we vse to playe vpon a citterne with a quill. They delighted themselues much with their musicke, keeping time with their hands, and playing and singing by booke, pricked on line and space, resembling much ours heere. I feasted them, and presented them with diuers English comodities : and after some two houres stay they returned. I moued the king for a house, which hee readily granted, and tooke two of the merchants along with him, and shewed them three or foure houses, willing them to take their choice, paying the owners as they could agree. The thirteenth, I went ashoare, attended vpon by the merchants and principal officers, and deliuered the presents to the king, amounting to the value of one hundred and fortie pounds, or thereabouts, which he receiued with very great kindnesse, feasting me and my whole companie with diuers sorts of powdered wild fowles and fruits : and calling for a standing cup (which was one of the presents then deliuered him) he caused it to be filled with his country wine, which is distilled out of rice, and is as strong as our Aquauitte : and albeit the cuppe held vpward of a pint and half, notwithstanding taking the cup in his hand, he told me hee would drinke it all off, for health to the king of England, and so did my self, and all his nobles doing the like. And whereas in the roome where the king was, there was onely my self and the cape merchant, (the rest of our company being in an other roome) the king commanded his secretarie to goe out vnto them, and see that euerie one of them did pledge the health. The king and his nobles did sit at meat crosse-legged vpon mats after the Turkie fashion, the mats richly edged, some with cloath of gold, some with veluet, satten, and damask. The fourteenth and fifteenth, we spent with giuing of presents. The sixteenth, I concluded with captain Andassee, captain of the China quarter here, for his house, to pay ninetie fiue ryals of eight for the monson of six moneths, he to repair it at present, and wee to repair it hereafter, and alter what we pleased : he to furnish all conuenient roomes with mats according to the fashion of the Countrey. This day our ship was so pestered with people, as that I was enforced to send to the king for a guardian to clear them out, many things been stolne, but I more doubted our owne people, than the naturals. There came in a Flemming in one of the Countrey boates, which had been at the Island Mashma, where he had sold good store of Pepper, broad Cloth, and Elephants teeth, but would not be aknowne vnto vs to haue sold any thing, yet brought nothing backe in the boat with him. But the Iapons his waterman told vs the truth, viz. that he had sold good quantitie of goods at a Mart there, and returned with barres of siluer, which they kept very secret.

The one and twentieth, the old King came aboord againe, and brought with him diuers women to be frolicke. These women were actors of comedies, which passe there from iland to iland to play, as our players doe here from towne to towne, hauing seuerall shifts of apparrell for the better grace of the matter acted ; which for the most part are of Warre, Loue, and such like. These women are as the slaues of one man, who putteth a price what euery man shall pay that hath to doe with any of them ; more than which he is not to take vpon paine of death, in case the partie iniured shall complaine. It is left to his owne discretion to prize her at the first, but rise he cannot afterwards, fall he may. Neither doth the partie bargaine with the wench, but with her master, whose command she is to obey. The greatest of their nobilitie trauelling hold it no disgrace to send for these Panders to their Inne, and do compound with them for the wenches, either to fill their drinke at table (for all men of any rank haue their drinke filled to them by women) or otherwise to haue the vse of them. When any of these panders die (though in their life time they were receiued into company of the best, yet now as vnworthy to rest among the worst) they are bridled with a bridle made of straw, as you would bridle an horse, and in the cloathes they died in, are dragged through the streetes into the fields, and there cast vpon a dunghill, for dogges and fowles to deuoure. The twentie ninth, a Soma or Iunke of the Flemmings arriued at Langasaque, from Syam, laden with Brasill wood and skins of all sorts, wherein it was said that there were Englishmen, but proued to be Flemmings. For that before our comming,the passed generally by the name of Englishmen; for our English Nation hath been long known by report among them, but much scandalled by the Portugals Iesuites, as pyrats and rovers upon the seas ; so that the naturals haue a song which they call the English Crofonia, shewing how the English doe take the Spanish ships, which they (singing) doe act likewise in gesture with their Cattans by their sides, with which song and acting, they terrifie and skare their children, as the French sometimes did theirs with the name of the Lord Talbot. The first of Iuly, two of our Company happened to quarrell the one with the other, and were very likely to haue gone into the field, to the endangering of vs all. For it is a custome here, that whosoeuer drawes a weapon in anger, although he doe no harme therewith, hee is presently cut in peeces : and doing but small hurt, not only themselues are so executed, but their whole generation. The seuenth, the King of the Iland Goto, not farre from Firando came to visit King Foyne, saying, that he had heard of an excellent English ship arriued in his dominions, which he greatly desired to see, and goe aboord of. King Foyne intreated me that he might be permitted, for that hee was an especial friend of his. So he was well entertained aboord, banqueted, and had diuers peeces shot off at his departure, which he very kindly accepted, and told me, that hee should bee right glad to liue to see some of our nation to come to his Iland, whither they should be heartily welcome. The eighth, three Iaponians were executed, viz. two men and one woman : the cause this ; the woman none of the honestest (her husband being trauelled from home) had appointed these two their seuerall houres to repair vnto her. The latter man not knowing of the former, and thinking the time too long, comming in before the houre appointed, found the first man with her already, and enraged thereat, he whipt out his cattan, and wounded both of them very sorely, hauing very neere hewne the chine of the mans back in two. But as well as he might hee cleared himselfe of the woman, and recouering his cattan, wounded the other. The street taking notice of the fray, forthwith seased vpon them, led them aside, and acquainted King Foyne therewith, and sent to know his pleasure, (for according to his will, the partie is executed) who presently gaue order that they should cut off their heads : which done, euery man that listed (as very many did) came to trie the sharpenesse of their cattans vpon the corps, so that before they left off, they had hewne them all three into peeces as small as a mans hand, and yet not withstanding did not then giue ouer, but placing the peeces one vpon another, would try how many of them they could strike through at a blow; and the peeces are left to the fowles to deuoure. The tenth, three more were executed as the former, for stealing of a woman from Firando, and selling her at Langa-sacque long since, two of them were brethren, and the other a sharer with them. When any are to be executed, they are led out of the towne in this manner : there goeth first one with a pick-axe, next followeth an other with a shouell for to make his graue (if that bee permitted him), the third man beareth a small table whereon is written the parties offence, which table is afterwards set vp vpon a post on the graue where he is buried. The fourth is the partie to be executed, his hands bound behind him with a silken cord, hauing a litle banner of paper (much resembling our wind-vanes) whereon is likewise written his offence. The executioner followeth next, with his cattan by his side, holding in his hand the cord wherewith the offender is bound. On either side of the executioner goeth a souldiour with his pike, the head thereof resting on the shoulder of the partie appointed to suffer, to skare him from attempting to escape. In this very manner I saw one led to execution, who went so resolutely and without all appearance of feare of death, that I could not but much admire him, neuer hauing seene the like in Christendome. The offence for which he suffered was for stealing of a sacke of rice (of the value of two shillings sixe pence) from his neighbour, whose house was then on fire. The nineteenth, the old King Foyne entreated me for a peece of Poldauis,1 which I sent him; hee caused it presently to be made into coates, which he (notwithstanding that hee was a King, and of that great age, and famed to be the worthiest soldiour of all Iapan, for his valour and seruice in the Corean warres) did wear next his skinne, and some part thereof was made into handkerchiefes, which he daily vsed. The nine and twentieth, M. Adams arriued at Firando, hailing been seuenteene dayes on the way comming from Sorongo, we hauing staied here for his comming fortie eight dayes. After I had friendly entertained him, I conferred with him in the presence of the merchants, touching the incouragement hee could giue of trade in these parts. He answered, that it was not alwaies alike, but sometime better, sometimes worse, yet doubted not but we should doe as well as others ; giuing admirable commendations of the Countrey, as much affected thereunto. The third of August 1613, king Foyne sent to know of what bulk our kings present to the Emperour was, also what number of people I would take with me, for that he would prouide accordingly for my going vp in good fashion both for barke, horses, and pallanchins. This day, I caused the presents to be sorted that were to be giuen to the emperour. and to those of office and esteeme about him.

viz :      £   s.  d.

To Ogoshosama, the emperour, to the value of    87  7  6

To Shongosama, the emperours sonne ...                          43 15   0

To Codskedona, the emperours secretarie . .                    15 17   6

To Saddadona, the emperours sonnes secretarie              14 03   4

To Icocora Inga, Iudge of Meaco ....                     04 10   6

To Fongo dona, admirall of Orango ....                  03 10   0

To Goto Shozauero, the mintmaster ....                11 00   0

Totall . .                                                           180 03  10






 [Endorsed .- "A vearey Larg Letter wrot from Japan by William Adams, and sent home in the Cloue, 1614, touching of his assistance rendred vnto ye Generall and of entertanemt into the Companies Seruice. Decern. 1613."]


The Allmightye God by whoum all enterprisses and purpoosses hau thear full effect be bllessed for euer. Amen.

Right Woorshipfulls, hauing ssoo just occacion, I haue imboldned my self although unwourth to writt thees feau vnwourthy lines vnto you : in which first of all I crau your woorships pardon in whatt I shall fayll in.

Hauing thorough the prouidenc of God ariued on of your shipes called the Cloue, being Gennerall or Captain John Sarris, who at his first ariuall in the Hand of Perando sent a letter vnto me, in all hast to haue me coum to him : vntill svch tym he would tarri for me. Ye which so sooun as I had receued his letter, I made no dellai, being at that tym at the courte, being distant from the place of the ships ariuall 250 llegs. So coomming to the place of the ships ariual, I wass gladly receued of the Gennerall and Master and all the wholl covmpani. At which tym we did enter in to consultacon what courss was to be taken : the Gennerall making knowen vnto me that he had brought his Majesti [a] letter with a prees- sent for him. Vppon which for the honner of his Mti. and our covntri, both, I with him thought it good to mak all speed and to go to the courte for the delliueranc thearof, etc. I allso entred into speech with him what covmodites he had brought with him : of which he made all thinges to mee known. So finding that svch thinges as he had brought wass not veri vendibel ; I told him, for his arivall I was veri glad theerof, but in respecte of the ventur by the wourshipfull covmpani being so great, I did not see anny wayss in this land to requit the great charges therof. My reesson wass, for theer cloth at this pressent was very cheep, becass both from Nova Spania, Manilia, and ovt of Holland, which in thees 4 yeers there caem very mvch : soum sold and verry mvch vnsold. For olliphant teeth the Hollanders had brought aboundanc, that the priss theroff was fallen very mvch : vppon which occassion the Hollanders hau transported manny therof to Siam. Stylle [steel] in long barres still holding his old prise at 20 crownes the picoll, which is 1251. Inglish wayt, and sovmtymes being coum worth 31. 15s. starling. Leed, [lead] holding his priss a llittell mor or less at 25s. and sovmtymes 30s. the picoll. Tin so good cheep heer as in Ingland, and ordinance not in any great request : not the picoll abou 30s. and sovmtym vnder. For callecovs and fine Cambaya goods ; not in any request, becass this countri hath abovndanc of cotten. Thus for thoos thinges. Now for peeper and clones. This covntri doth not evs [use] verri mvch therof, nor of any other spice : for which case senc [sirace] the trad of the Hollanders which hau brought mvch peper and cloues, that peper the pownd is noe more worth then 5d. a pownd, and soumtymes less, and at the deerest 6d. and cloues at 12d., which is of no profiit to bring hether. AfFoor tym, when the Spaynard had the trad with the Jap- panners, onlly, the peper was at 12d. the L. and cloues at 2s. 6d. and 3s. the L. : now being ouerlayd is verry chep, etc. Thus hauing confferred heer vppon, the gennerall mad him self redy to go with me to the court : of which with all hast prosseeded theerof, etc.


The following account of the journey is given from the Narrative of Captain Saris (Purchas, vol. i, p. 370, etc.) ; Adams having omitted the particulars.




The seuenth of August, King Foyne furnished me with a proper galley of his owne rowed with twentie fiue oares on a side, and sixtie men, which I did fit vp in a verie comely manner, with waste cloathes, ensignes, and all other necessaries, and hauing taken my leaue of the King, I went and remained aboord the ship, to set all things in order before my departure. — Which done, and remembrances left with the master and Cape merchant, for the well gouerning of the ship and house ashoare during my absence, taking with mee tenne English, and nine others, besides the former sixtie, which were only to attend the gallie, I departed from Firando towards the Emperours court. Wee were rowed through, and amongst diuers Hands, all of which, or the most part of them, were well inhabited, and diuers proper townes builded vpon them ; whereof one called Faccate, hath a very strong castle, built of free-stone, but no ordnance nor souldiers therein. It hath a ditch about fiue fathome deepe, and twice as broad round about it, with a draw bridge, kept all in very good repaire. I did land and dine there in the towne, the tyde and wind so strong against vs, as that we could not passe. The towne seemed to be as great as London is within the wals, very wel built, and euen, so as you may see from the one end of the street to the other. The place exceedingly peopled, very ciuil and curteous, only that at our landing, and being here in Faccate, and so through the whole country, withersoeuer we came, the boyes, children, and worser sort of idle people, would gather about and follow along after vs, crying, Core, Core, Cocore, Ware, that is to say, You Coreans with false hearts. Awondering, hooping, hollowing, and making such a noise about vs, that we could scarcely heare one an other speake, sometimes throwing stones at vs (but that not in many townes) yet the clamour and crying after vs was euery where alike, none reproouing them for it. The best aduice that I can giue those who hereafter shall arriue there, is that they passe on without regarding those idle rablements, and in so doing, they shall find theer eares only troubled with the noise. All alongst this coast, and so vp to Ozaca we found women diuers, that liued with their household and family in boats vpon the water, as in Holland they do the like. These women would catch fish by diuing, which by net and lines they missed, and that in eight fathome depth : their eyes by continuall diuing doe grow as red as blood, whereby you may know a diuing woman from all other women. We were two daies rowing from Firando to Faccate. About eight or tenne leagues on this side the straights of Xemina-seque, we found a great towne, where there lay in a docke, a iuncke of eight hundred or a thousand tunnes of burthen, sheathed all with yron, with a guard appointed to keep her from firing and treachery. She was built in a very homely fashion, much like that which describeth Noahs arke vnto vs. The naturals told vs, that she serued to transport souldiers into any of the Ilands, if rebellion or warre should happen. We found nothing extraordinary after we had passed the straights of Xemina-seque, vntill we came vnto Ozaca, where we arriued the twenty seuenth day of August ; our galley could not come neere the towne by sixe miles, where another smaller vessell met vs, wherein came the good man or host of the house where we lay in Ozaca, and brought a banquet with him of wine and salt fruits to intertaine me. The boat having a fast made to the mast-head, was drawn by men, as our barkes are from London westward. We found Ozaca to be a very great towne, as great as London within the walls, with many faire timber bridges of a great height, seruing to passe ouer a riuer there as wide as the Thames at London. Some faire houses we found there, but not many. It is one of the chiefe sea-ports of all Iapan; hauing a castle in it, maruellous large and strong, with very deepe trenches about it, and many draw bridges, with gates plated with yron.

The castle is built all of free-stone, with bulwarks and battlements, with loope holes for smal shot and arrowes, and diuers passages for to cast stones vpon the assaylants. The walls are at the least sixe or seuen yards thicke, all (as I said) of free-stone, without any filling in the inward part with trumpery, as they reported vnto me. The stones are great, of an excellent quarry, and are cut so exactly to fit the place where they are laid, that no morter is used, but onely earth cast betweene to fill vp voyd creuises if any be. In this castle did dwell at our beeing there, the sonne of Tiqua-samma, who being an infant at the time of his fathers decease, was left to the gouernement and education of foure, whereof Ogoshosamma, the now Emperour, was one and chiefe. The other three desirous of soveraigntie each for his particular, and repulsed by Ogoshosamma, were for their owne safetie forced to take vp armes, wherein fortune fauouring Ogoshosamma at the triall in field, two of them beeing slaine, the third was glad to saue himselfe by flight. He beeing conquerour, attempted that which formerly (as it is thought) hee neuer dream'd of, and proclaimed himselfe Emperour, and seazing vpon the true heire, married him vnto his daughter, as the onely meanes to worke a perfect reconcilement, confining the young married couple to liue within this castle of Ozaca, attended onely with such as had been brought vp from their cradles by Ogoshosamma, not knowing any other father (as it were) then him : so that by their intelligence he could at all times vnderstand what passed there, and accordingly rule him. Right ouer against Ozaca, on the other side of the riuer, lyeth another great Towne called Sacay, but not so bigge as Ozaca, yet is it a towne of great trade for all the Ilands thereabout. The eight and twentieth day at night, hauing left musters and prices of our commodities with our host, we departed from Ozaca by barke towards Fushimi, where we ariued.

The nine and twentieth at night we found here a garrison of three thousand souldiers maintayned by the emperour, to keepe Miaco and Ozaco in subiection. The garrison is shifted euery three yeares, which change happened to be at our being there, so that we saw the old bands march away, and the new enter, in most souldier-like manner, marching five a brest, and to euerie ten files an ofiicer which is called a captain of fiftie, who kept them continually in verie good order. First, their shot, viz. calieuers, (for muskets they haue none, neyther will they vse any), then followed pikes, next swords, or cattans and targets, then bowes and arrowes : next those, weapons resembling a Welch-hooke called waggadashes ; then calieuers again, and so as formerly, without any ensigne or colours : neyther had they any drummes or other musical instruments for warre. The first file of the cattans and tar gets had siluer scabberds to there cattans, and the last file which was next to the captain had their scabberds of gold. The companies consists of divers numbers, some fiue hundred, some three hundred, some one hundred and fiftie men. In the midst of euery companie were three horses very richly trapped, aud furnished with sadles, well set out, some couered with costly furres, some with veluet, some with stammet broad-cloth, euery horse had three slaues to attend him, ledde with silken halters, their eyes couered with leather couers. After euery troope followed the captaine on horse backe, his bed and other necessaries were laid vpon his owne horse, equally peased [poised] on either side. Ouer the same was spread a couering of redde felt of China, whereupon the captaine did sit crosse-legged, as if hee had sate betwixt a couple of panniers : and for those that were ancient or otherwise weake-backt, they had a staff artificially fixed unto the pannell, that the rider might rest himselfe, and leane backward against it, as if he were sitting in a chaire. The captaine generall of this garrison wee met two dayes after we had met his first troope, (hauing still in the mean-time met with some of these companies as we passed along, sometimes one league, sometimes two leagues distant one from another.) Hee marched in very great state, beyond that the others did, (for the second troope was more richly set out in their armes then the first : and the third then the second, and so still euery one better then other, vntill it came vnto this the last and best of all.) He hunted and hawked all the way, hauing his owne hounds and hawkes along with him, the hawkes being hooded and lured as ours are. His horses for his owne sadle being sixe in number, richly trapped. Their horses are not tall, but of the size of our midling nags, short and well trust, small headed and very full of mettle, in my opinion farre excelling the Spanish iennet in pride and stomacke. He had his pallankin carryed before him, the inside crimson veluet, and sixe men appointed to carrie it, two at a time. Such good order was taken for the passing and prouiding for, of these three thousand souldiers, that no man either trauelling or inhabiting vpon the way where they lodged, was any way iniured by them, but chiefly entertayned them as other their guests, because they paid for what they tooke, as all other men did. Euery towne and village vpon the way being well fitted with cookes and victualling houses, where they might at an instant haue what they needed, and dyet themselues from a pennie English a meale, to two shillings a meal. The thirtieth, we were furnished with ninetene horse at the emperours charge, to carrie vp our Kings presents, and those that attended me to Surunga. I had a pallankin appointed for me, and a spare horse led by, to ride when I pleased, very well set out. Sixe men appointed to carrie my pallankin in plaine and euen ground. But where the countrey grew hilly, ten men were allowed me thereto. The guardian whom king Foyne sent along with vs, did from time to time and place to place by warrant, take vp these men and horses to serue our turnes, as the post-masters doe here in England : as also lodgiug at night. According to the custome of the countrey, I had a slaue appointed to runne with a pike before mee. Thus we trauelled vntill the sixth of September, before we got to Surunga, each day fifteene or sixteene leagues, of three miles to a league as we ghessed it. The way for the most part is wonderfull euen, and where it meeteth with mountaines, passage is cut through. This way is the mayne reade of all this countrey, and is for the most part sandie and grauell ; it is diuided into leagues, and at euery leagues end are two small hils, viz. of either side of the way one, and vpon euery one of them a faire pine tree, trimmed round in fashion of an arbor. These markes are placed vpon the way to the end, that the hacknie men, and those which let out horses for hire, should not make men pay more then their due, which is about three pence a league. The roade is exceedingly trauelled, full of people, euer and anon you meet with farmes and countrey houses, with villages, and often with great townes, with ferries ouer fresh riuers, and many Futtakeasse or Fotoquis, which are their temples, scituate in groues and most pleasantest places for delight of the whole countrey. The priests that tend thereupon dwelling about the same, as our friers in old time planted themselues here in England. When wee approached any towne, we saw crosses with the dead bodies of those who had been crucified there upon. For crucifying is heere an ordinarie punishment for most malefactors. Comming neere Surunga, where the Emperours court is, wee saw a scaffold with the heads of diuers (which had beene executed) placed thereupon, and by it were diuers crosses with the dead corpses of those which had been executed, remayning still vpon them, and the pieces of others, which after their executioners had beene hewen againe and againe by the triall of others cattans. All which caused a most vnsauourie passage to vs, that to enter into Surunga, must needs passe by them.

This citie of Surunga is full as big as London, with all the suburbs. The handi-crafts men wee found dwelling in the outward parts and skirts of the towne ; because those that are of the better sort, dwell in the inward part of the citie, and will not be annoyed with the rapping, knocking, and other disturbance that artificers cannot be without.




Comming to Meaco [? Osacca] had the kinge free hoorsses according to need to goo to the courte wher the emperour wass : at which plac of the genneralls ariuall, I made his couming knowen. So the first day after, being sovmwhat weery, rested and sovmwhat in fitting of the kinges pressents. So the next daye following being redy, the gennerall went to his [the emperour  palles [palace] : being courteously receued and bid welcoum by the tresvrer and others. So being in the palles set downe, the gennerall called me and byd me tell the ssecretari, that the kinge mati. letter he would delliuer it with his own handes. Vppon which I went and told ye secretari thearof : at which he awnsswered, that it was not the covstoum of the land to delliuer anny letter with the hand of anny stranger, but that he should keep the letter in his hand till he cam into the pressence of the emperor ; and then he would tak it from him ovt of his handes and delliuer it to the emperour. Which awnsser I told the generall theearof; at which awnsswer not being contented cassed me to tell the secretari that yf he myght not delliuer it himself he would retourn agayne to his loging. Which second awnsswer I told the secretari; the which awnsser, not thinking well therof, was disconted with me in that I had nott instruckted him in the manners and coustoum of all strangers which had bein yeerly in thir covntri ; and made me again to go to the gennerall : the which I did ; but the gennerall being verry mvch discontented, it so rested. At which tym, pressently, the emperour came fourth, and the gennerall wass brought befoor him : to whoum the emperour bid him wellcovm of so weery journy, receuing his mati. letter from the gennerall by the handes of the secrittary, etc. So the generall departed his way, and I wass called in : to whoum the emperor inquired of me of the kinges mati. of Ingland : consserning his greatnes and poovr [power] , with diuers other questiones which wear to longe to wright. Onlly at ye last he byd me tell the gennerall, yt what request he had, yt he should mak it knowen to me, or to go to his ssecretary ; he should be awnssered : which awnsser I returned to the gennerall. So the next day folowing the gennerall went with me to the ssecrettaris hovss, with whoum he mad known his demandes. The which being written wear caried befor the emperor. The which the emperor reead all his demandes, and hauing reed them told me that he should hau them. Hauing mvch talk with me of his covming, I told him to settell a factory in his land. He asked me in what plac. I told him, hereon, I did think not far from his court, or the kinges courtt : att which he seemed verry glad. And hauing had mvch speech heer and thear, he asked me if part of his covming was not for discouer [i] to farther partes to the northwestward, or, northwards. I told him our countri still douth not cees to spend mvch monny in discoueri thearof. He asked me whether thear wear nott a way, and whear [? whether] it wass not verry short, or, neer. I told him we douted nott but thear is a way, and that veery neeir ; at which tym called for a mappe of the wholl world, and so sawe that it wass very neer. Hauing speechis with me, whether we had no knolledg of a land lying hard by his countri, on the north part of his land, called Yedzoo and Mattesmay. I told him I did neuer see it pvt into anny mappe nor gllobe. I told him it myght bee that the wourshipfull coumpany woould send soum ship, or other, to discouer. He told me that in the yeer of our Lord 1611, a ship wass seen of theis cost, on the est syde, in latitude of 38 d., or thearabout, whether that wear anny of our countri ship ? I told him I thought not. He told me agayn it could be no ship of ye Spaynnards going for Novo Spania : for this ship was seen in Apprill, which tym no ship goeth not from the Manillieus [Manillas]. He asked me yf I did deesir to go that waye. I told hym, yf the wourshippful coumpanie should dessir svch a thing, I would willingly ymploy my self in svch an honorabell accion. He told me yf I did go, he would geue [give] me his letter of frindship to the land of Yedzoo, whear his subiects haue frinship, hauing a stronge towne and a castell : thorough which menes haue 30 dayes joourney frindship with thoos pepell ; which peopell be, as I do gather, Tartares joyning to the Cam, or borders of Cattay. Now in my sympel iudgment, yf the northwest passag be euer discouered, it wilbe discouered by this way of Jappan ; and so thuss, with diuers other speechis most frindli evsed [used], I toouk [took] my leaue of him. So the next day Mowing, the gennerall mad him self reddy to go for Quanto, a province so called, whear the kinge, the emperors eldest sonn, is ressident, being distant from the emperours court soum 42 lleagues. To which place we went, hauing in 4 or 5 dayes finnissed according to ye coustoum of the land, the gennerall being verri well entertayned. So returned to the emperors courte agayne. At which place receuing the emperours commission and priuileges, mad our retourn for Ferrando. Now consserning my self. Hauing dispached the gennerall bysiness, I did seek vnto the counsell to speak in my behalf, to get leeau [leave] to go hoom for my covntri ; but the ssecretari, with no other, would not speak for my liberty to goo for my country, knowing that I had diuers tymes mad [request] and he would not let mee goo. So I neuertheless mad my selfe soumwhat bold. Finding the emperour in a good moud [mood], I took ovt of my boussom his broode seeall, consserning certtain lands, and layed it dounn beefore him, geuing his mati. most hvmbell thankes for his great fauor vnto mee, dessiring leaue to go for my countri. At which request he looked ernestli vppon mee, and asked me yf I wass dessirrovs to go for my country ? I awnssered most dessirovs. He awnssered, yf he should dettain me, he should do me wrong ; in so mvch, that in his seruis I had behaued my self well, with manny other woourds of coummendacions, the which I leaue. So I thank God got my lyberty ovt of my long and evill sarues [service]. "With this toouk my leau of him, bidding me yf I did not think well of going this yeear, 1 should tarry tell other shipping came, and go as I wovld : telling me yt. yf I cam vp into the countri to bring sertain goodes which he named. So thuss, I thank God, being not littell joyfful retvrned with the gennerall to Ferrando, whear the ship wasse, etc. So about a 15 dayes of my abod in Ferrando, it was the gennerall plleasur to call for mee, the cape marchant with others bein in pressenc, hauing wrytten cartain lynes vppon a sid of paper, calling me to [? an ac] count, and to know of mee what my intent wass, whether I would go hom with him, or tarry heer in this countri. I awnsswered him my desir wass to go houm to my countri. He asked me, now with him or no ; I awnssered him, I had spent in this countri mani yeares, thorov which I wass poour : for which cass I wass dessirrouss to get soumthing befor my retourn. The reason I would not go with him wass for dyuers injerues [? injurious things] doun against me ; the which were thinges to me veri Strang and vnloked for, which thinges were wrytt I ceass, leuing it to others to mak rellacion thereof. He asked me yf I would serue the coumpani. I awnssered, yees, veri willing. He asked me on what condisscion, whether I would tak the 201. of grattis which the wourshipfull coumpany had lent my wyfe, and stand to their courtessi.  First, I do most hvmbly thank the wourshipfull company for this deed of Christian charriti in the lending of my poour wyff the 201. If euer I be abell, I will mak sattisfaxcion for the promt therof, and for the principall hau heer mad sattisfaxcion to gennerall John Sarris, taking the byll of exchang, which diuers of my good frinds had giuen their wovirds for payment therof, hauing theear hands firmed, and I thank all myghti God, that hath geuen me abilliti to mak payment therof. The tym wass manny yeares in this covntri, I hau not bin mr. of 20*. * I awnswered, yf I weer in pressenc of the wourship. coumpani, I would stand to anny thing they should think good of ; bvt in this plac, was willing to haue soum sartanty. He still vrged mee with the 201. lent to my wyff of grattis, and stand to the coumpanis good will. I awnssered as at the first, again. Theay asked we what I would for a yeear. I told him, I hau neuer bin hired by the yeear, but by the month. He told me the coumpani did not hire anny man by the monneth, but by the yeear. I told him, I wass not willing to go by the yeer, but by the monnth. He asked me what I would ask a moneth. I told him of strangers by whoum I hau bin imployed did geu mee 151. the monnth, but I demanded 12l. the month. Vppon demand, he bade mee go ovt of the chamber a littell whill, and he would call me again. So I went away, and a littell whill afterward he called me again, and asked me yf I wass ressolued. I told him as at the first. So he bad mee the yeer 80l. I told him again, I would not. So in the end I told him not vnder 10l. the monnth, I would not serue, alledging I wass vnwilling to pvt the coumpany to svch a great charge, becass I did not see in Japan anny proffit to be mad to quit svch great wages, but rather to be free, for in respect of bennifit I had diuers mens [means] ofered me, to be mor to my proffit, which the gennerall knew of : dessiring ye gennerall to let mee be free, and to tak other orders, which weear for my furtheranc ; and not to be heer imployed, whear I saw no promt coum in. Thus in the end, he proffited [? proffered] me 80l. and the 20l. geuen mee free which wass lent my wyff. I awnser him, no. So lett me dept. till the next day, at which tym I promissed to geu him a ressolut awnsser. So the next day, in the morning, sent for me again, [asking] whether I was ressolued, I sayd ass affor. So he awnssered me, I did exact vppon them to hau them to geu mee what I list. I told him again my mening was not so, for I could better my selfe a great dell more, onlly I wass not willing to searue, where, by my sarues I could not win so mvch for my masters, for which cass onlly and nothing ells. So demanding me still ernestly, proffered me 100l. the yeer; the which, in conssideracion I would not geu discontentment, but granted vnto it. So vppon this he did aske me how I would be paid it. I told him, heer in Japan. He said, none in his ship did receue not aboue a 3 pt beffor he cam hom : at which I awnssered, it might be so, bvt my cass was otherwyss, for I haue promyssed my sserues [service] no longer but svch tym as God shall send the Cloue in to Ingland, or awnsser of her ariual, and return of the wourshipfull companis awnsser, whether they will discouer to the nor west, or not. Thearfor, for me tarry so longe, and not to receu [receive] no wages heir, I would not mayntain my self with aparill and expences, with ovt receuing soom monny to mayntain my self in credit and clothes. So I agreed : which God grant his blessing vppon my labors, that I may be a proffitabell saruant vnto your wourship : which I hop in all myghti God I shalbe, etc. Now consserning this discouerie to the nofward. Yf it stand with your wourshipps liking, in my judgment neuer hath bin better menes to discouer. My ressons : First, this Kingdoum of Jappan, with whom we hav frindship : the emperador hath promyssed his assistance to you, his letter of frindship to the countri of Yedzoo and Matesmaye, whear his subiects are ressident. Secondly, langwiges, that can speak the Corea and Tartar langwage, for Japan langedge not to be reckined. For shipping : yf your wourship send not, yet you may hau bylded, or cass to be bylded, svch shipes or pinnces necessary for svch discoueri with lesse charges. Things ar heer good cheep, as tymber, plank, irroun, hemp, and carpenteres : only tarre heer is none ; rosen annouf, but verry deer. Thees thinges I hau experienc of, becass I hau byllt 2 shipes in this country for the emperor : the on of them sold to the Spaynnard vppon occacion, and the other I sayld in my selff vppon dyuers voyages uppon this cost. Now, the on of them that wass sold to the Spaynnards, wass vppon this occassion : that a great ship of 1000 tovnes, which cam from ye Manilia, which was cast away vppon this cost, whear in was the gouernor of Manilia, to whoum the emperor lent hir to carry him to Akapulca, a place in Nova Spaynia ; which ship theay found so good as theay neuer returned agayn, butt sent so mvch monny ass shee wass wourth, and afterwards wass imployed in the vyages from Nova Spaynia to the Phillipines. Sso that neuertheless by my profession I am no shippwright, yet I hop to make svch shipping as shalbe necessary for anny svch discouery. Now men to sayll with only excepted, the peopell are not acquaynted with our manner. Therfor, yf your wourshipps hau anny svch pvrposs, send me good marriners [navigators] to sayll with ; and yf you send but 15 or 20, or leess, it is no matter, for the peo pell of this land are verri stoutt seea men, and in what way I shall go in, I can hau so manny as I will. Now for vytelling. Heir is in this land annouf and svch plenty, and so good cheep, as is in Ingland, as thoss who haue bin heer can satisfi your wourshipp therin. So that I say agayn, the wantes be coordish [cordage], pouldaues [canvas], and tarr, pich, or rossen, and coumpasses, rounning [hour] glasses, a payr of gllobes for demonstracion, and soum cardes [charts] or mapes, contayninge the wholl world. Thees thinges yf your wourship do furnish me with, you shall find me not neg- legent in svch an honorabell surues [service] : by God's grace. Thus mvch I hau thought good to wrytt to your wourshipp, being soumwhat longe in making the particullers apparent of this discource ; which discource, I do trust in all myghti God, should be on of the most famost that euer hath bin, etc. Now conserning the great kindnes which your wourshipps hath shewed to me, in lending my wyf monny. I do still crau your wourship coumpassion. What monny your wour ship shall lend, by God's grace I will mak svch sattisfaccion as shalbe to your dessir. Thearfor, I do again intreat your wourshipes to lend my wyf 50l. or 401., tell it be the will of God I coum hoom ; and eyther heer to pay it, or els wher, as you shall cofnand me, etc. I do embolden my self to coummend me vnto your wour shipes : praying God all myghty to bless your wourship with continewance of his grace, in health and prosperitie ; and in the lyf to coum euerlasting feliciti. Amen.

By your vnwourth saruant and vnknown ffrind, yeat faythfvll to coummand tell death William Addames.'



Appendix to Letter No. IV.


THE CONTRACT made with CAPT. WM. ADAMS, at Firando, in Japon, the 24th of November, 1613.


WHEREAS ye. R. honourable companye, ye. marchants of London trading into ye. East Indyes, of there greate loue and affection to you Capt. Addams, haue appointed and set out this shipp called ye. Cloue pr. Japan; bilding there hoopes vppone ye. foundation of your long experyence in these partes, for the settling of a benyficiall ffactorye. And hauing since my arriuall not onlye obteyned ye. emperor's grant with large priualiges for ye. same, but also procured your freedome, which, till this present, could not be obteyned.

It now resteth what course you will take; wheather to retorne for your countery, or remaine heare ye. companyes servant, in what manner you hould your selfe best able to doe them sendee : what sallory you will haue ; and in what manner to be paid. Viz. to haue the 20l. pr. exchange imprested vnto you, and to stand to ye. curtesie of ye. companye for further guirdon, or to com to a sertaine agreement pr. such a some as my selfe and ye. ffactors appointed to staye heare shall thinke fitting, till advize out of England. And hearin I intreate you chearfullye to deliuere your resolution to each pointe : for yt. the tyme of yeare inforseth my departure. And I should be heartalye sorrye yf in what I may giue you content, there should happen the leaste defect.

WHER VNTO he made answer, that his desyre is to goe home for his native contrey of England, but not in this shipp : only his stayinge is for a certen tyme to get somthing, hauing hetherto spent his tyme soe many yeares in vayne, and wold not now goe home with an emptie purse. And that he is willinge to do the companye the best service he can in any thinge he may seme them in, eather pr. sea or land, to the benyfit of the English ffactory in Japon, or else wheare, as shall be thought fyting by the Counsell of the English ffactors their [there] resident, vntill the retorne of the next shipp, or ships, after the certen news of the Cloues arivall in England. Yet is not willinge to take the 20/. empresse before mentioned, and to stand to the wourshipfull companeyes courtsie for the rest ; but rather to com to agreement now, that he should hau to stand vpon a certentie. And demanded twelue pownds str. per moneth : sayinge, the Fflemynge did geue hym fyfteene pownd, when they first emploid hym into these ptes ; and herevpon went forth ; willing the Generall and rest, that they should bethinke them selues : for yf they wolde not geue him soe much, theare were others that wold ; and therefore wished them not to be his hindrance. And soon after retorninge, our Generall offred hym ffowreskore pownd a yeare. But he answered, that vnder one hvndred and twenty pownds per anno, he wold not. Then he was offred to haue the 20l. lent to his wife geven gratis, besids the 80l. per anno. But he stood still to his formeir offer of 120l. per anno. ; and soe departed, wishing vs to bethink our selves better, till the morrow morning. At which tyme the Cownsell afforsaid beinge assembled againe, Capt. Adams, beinge present, was of his owne good will, contented to be entertayned into the wourshipfull companyes service for the stipend, or sallery, of one hvndred pownds str. pr. yeare, to be paid at the end of two yeares, or, at such tyme as news shall com out of England of the arivall of the Cloue pr. any one ship, or ships ; Only in the meane tyme his desire was, that yf he stood in neede of twentie powud str. to lay out in aparell, or any other necessaries, that he might be furnished therewith.


AND SOE IN WITNESSE of the truth, he hath here-vnto put his hand and seale, promesinge not to vse any trade for his owne private benefytt per sea or land, to be preiudtiall to the benefytt of the Company.

Dated at Firando in Japon, the 24th day of November, 1613.

By me WM. ADDAM. [l. s.] Sealed and dd. in the putes [?] of us RICH. COCK. TEMPEST PEACOCK. R1CHARDE WICKHAM.


This agreement with Mr. Addams, was made with the consent of vs, Richard Cock, Tempest Peacock, and Rich. Wickham, whose names are aboue written for witnesses.