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857: In th' olde dayes of the kyng Arthour,
858: Of which that Britons speken greet honour,
859: Al was this land fulfild of fayerye.
860: The elf-queene, with hir joly compaignye,
861: Daunced ful ofte in many a grene mede.
* The combination of King Arthur and the supernatural "fairy" elf-queen suggests that this tale will be a "lay" rather than a simple "romance." The lay is expected to include elements of magic. Critics discuss whether this kind of tale really corresponds to the Wife's "character."
862: This was the olde opinion, as I rede;
863: I speke of manye hundred yeres ago.
864: But now kan no man se none elves mo,
865: For now the grete charitee and prayers
866: Of lymytours and othere hooly freres,
867: That serchen every lond and every streem,
868: As thikke as motes in the sonne-beem,
869: Blessynge halles, chambres, kichenes, boures,
870: Citees, burghes, castels, hye toures,
871: Thropes, bernes, shipnes, dayeryes --
872: This maketh that ther ben no fayeryes.
873: For ther as wont to walken was an elf,
874: Ther walketh now the lymytour hymself
875: In undermeles and in morwenynges,
876: And seyth his matyns and his hooly thynges
877: As he gooth in his lymytacioun.
878: Wommen may go now saufly up and doun.
879: In every bussh or under every tree
880: Ther is noon oother incubus but he,
881: And he ne wol doon hem but dishonour.
* The long digression, with its implied satire against the immorality of friars, is unexpected and hardly sufficiently motivated by the conflict between Friar and Summoner that introduce the Tale.
882: And so bifel it that this kyng Arthour
883: Hadde in his hous a lusty bacheler,
884: That on a day cam ridynge fro ryver;
885: And happed that, allone as he was born,
886: He saugh a mayde walkynge hym biforn,
887: Of which mayde anon, maugree hir heed,
888: By verray force, he rafte hire maydenhed;
889: For which oppressioun was swich clamour
890: And swich pursute unto the kyng Arthour,
891: That dampned was this knyght for to be deed,
892: By cours of lawe, and sholde han lost his heed --
893: Paraventure swich was the statut tho --
894: But that the queene and othere ladyes mo
895: So longe preyeden the kyng of grace,
896: Til he his lyf hym graunted in the place,
897: And yaf hym to the queene, al at hir wille,
898: To chese wheither she wolde hym save or spille.
* It is unexpected in a male-dominated society that rape should be punished by death, so the narrative has to justify it. Equally inexplicable is the concern shown by the queen and ladies for the knight's life.
899: The queene thanketh the kyng with al hir myght,
900: And after this thus spak she to the knyght,
901: Whan that she saugh hir tyme, upon a day:
902: Thou standest yet, quod she, in swich array
903: That of thy lyf yet hastow no suretee.
904: I grante thee lyf, if thou kanst tellen me
905: What thyng is it that wommen moost desiren.
906: Be war, and keep thy nekke-boon from iren!
907: And if thou kanst nat tellen it anon,
908: Yet wol I yeve thee leve for to gon
909: A twelf-month and a day, to seche and leere
910: An answere suffisant in this mateere;
911: And suretee wol I han, er that thou pace,
912: Thy body for to yelden in this place.
913: Wo was this knyght, and sorwefully he siketh;
914: But what! he may nat do al as hym liketh.
915: And at the laste he chees hym for to wende,
916: And come agayn, right at the yeres ende,
917: With swich answere as God wolde hym purveye;
918: And taketh his leve, and wendeth froth his weye.
919: He seketh every hous and and every place
920: Where as he hopeth for to fynde grace,
921: To lerne what thyng wommen loven moost;
922: But he ne koude arryven in no coost
923: Wher as he myghte fynde in this mateere
924: Two creatures accordynge in-feere.
925: Somme seyde wommen loven best richesse,
926: Somme seyde honour, somme seyde jolynesse,
927: Somme riche array, somme seyden lust abedde,
928: And oftetyme to be wydwe and wedde.
929: Somme seyde that oure hertes been moost esed
930: Whan that we ben yflatered and yplesed.
931: He gooth ful ny the sothe, I wol nat lye.
932: A man shal wynne us best with flaterye;
933: And with attendance, and with bisynesse,
934: Been we ylymed, bothe moore and lesse.
935: And somme seyen that we loven best
936: For to be free, and do right as us lest,
937: And that no man repreve us of oure vice,
938: But seye that we be wise, and no thyng nyce.
939: For trewely ther is noon of us alle,
940: If any wight wol clawe us on the galle,
941: That we nel kike, for he seith us sooth.
942: Assay, and he shal fynde it that so dooth;
943: For, be we never so vicious withinne,
944: We wol been holden wise and clene of synne.
945: And somme seyn that greet delit han we
946: For to been holden stable, and eek secree,
947: And in o purpos stedefastly to dwelle,
948: And nat biwreye thyng that men us telle.
949: But that tale is nat worth a rake-stele.
950: Pardee, we wommen konne no thyng hele;
951: Witnesse on Myda, -- wol ye heere the tale?
* The story is in Ovid's Metamorphoses 11.174-193 but in Ovid, it is Midas's barber who knows and cannot keep the secret, not his wife. The Wife as narrator is as free with her references now as in the Prologue.
952: Ovyde, amonges othere thynges smale,
953: Seyde Myda hadde, under his longe heres,
954: Growynge upon his heed two asses eres,
955: The whiche vice he hydde, as he best myghte,
956: Ful subtilly from every mannes sighte,
957: That, save his wyf, ther wiste of it namo.
958: He loved hire moost, and trusted hire also;
959: He preyede hire that to no creature
960: She sholde tellen of his disfigure.
961: She swoor him, nay, for al this world to wynne,
962: She nolde do that vileynye or synne,
963: To make hir housbonde han so foul a name.
964: She nolde nat telle it for hir owene shame.
965: But nathelees, hir thoughte that she dyde,
966: That she so longe sholde a conseil hyde;
967: Hir thoughte it swal so soore aboute hir herte
968: That nedely som word hire moste asterte;
969: And sith she dorste telle it to no man,
970: Doun to a mareys faste by she ran
971: Til she cam there, hir herte was a-fyre --
972: And as a bitore bombleth in the myre,
* The bittern is a marsh bird with a strange cry usually termed "booming"
973: She leyde hir mouth unto the water doun:
974: Biwreye me nat, thou water, with thy soun,
975: Quod she; -- to thee I telle it and namo;
976: Myn housbonde hath longe asses erys two!
977: Now is myn herte al hool, now is it oute.
978: I myghte no lenger kepe it, out of doute.
979: Heere may ye se, thogh we a tyme abyde,
980: Yet out it moot; we kan no conseil hyde.
981: The remenant of the tale if ye wol heere,
982: Redeth Ovyde, and ther ye may it leere.
983: This knyght, of which my tale is specially,
984: Than that he saugh he myghte nat come therby,
985: This is to seye, what wommen love moost,
986: Withinne his brest ful sorweful was the goost.
987: But hoom he gooth, he myghte nat sojourne;
988: The day was come that homward moste he tourne.
989: And in his wey it happed hym to ryde,
990: In al this care, under a forest syde,
991: Wher as he saugh upon a daunce go
992: Of ladyes foure and twenty, and yet mo;
993: Toward the whiche daunce he drow ful yerne,
994: In hope that som wysdom sholde he lerne.
995: But certeinly, er he cam fully there,
996: Vanysshed was this daunce, he nyste where.
* We must assume that the old woman is associated with the supernatural world. The vision descibed has some similarities with the "faerie" scenes in the English lay "Sir Orfeo."
997: No creature saugh he that bar lyf,
998: Save on the grene he saugh sittynge a wyf --
999: A fouler wight ther may no man devyse.
1000: Agayn the knyght this olde wyf gan ryse,
1001: And seyde, sire knyght, heer forth ne lith no wey.
1002: Tel me what that ye seken, by youre fey!
1003: Paraventure it may the bettre be;
1004: Thise olde folk kan muchel thyng, quod she.
1005: My leeve mooder, quod this knyght, certeyn
1006: I nam but deed, but if that I kan seyn
1007: What thyng it is that wommen moost desire.
1008: Koude ye me wisse, I wolde wel quite youre hire.
1009: Plight me thy trouthe heere in myn hand, quod she,
1010: The nexte thyng that I requere thee,
1011: Thou shalt it do, if it lye in thy myght,
1012: And I wol telle it yow er it be nyght.
1013: Have heer my trouthe, quod the knyght, I grante.
1014: Thanne, quod she, I dar me wel avante
1015: Thy lyf is sauf; for I wol stonde therby,
1016: Upon my lyf, the queene wol seye as I.
1017: Lat se which is the proudeste of hem alle,
1018: That wereth on a coverchief or a calle,
1019: That day seye nay of that I shal thee teche.
1020: Lat us go forth, withouten lenger speche.
1021: Tho rowned she a pistel in his ere,
1022: And bad hym to be glad, and have no fere.
1023: Whan they be comen to the court, this knyght
1024: Seyde he had holde his day, as he hadde hight,
1025: And redy was his answere, as he sayde.
1026: Ful many a noble wyf, and many a mayde,
1027: And many a wydwe, for that they been wise,
1028: The queene hirself sittynge as a justise,
1029: Assembled been, his answere for to heere;
1030: And afterward this knyght was bode appeere.
* Sometimes in France, at least, the queen and high court ladies used to hold "Courts of Love" to judge cases of crimes against love
1031: To every wight comanded was silence,
1032: And that the knyght sholde telle in audience
1033: What thyng that worldly wommen loven best.
1034: This knyght ne stood nat stille as doth a best,
1035: But to his questioun anon answerde
1036: With manly voys, that al the court it herde:
1037: My lige lady, generally, quod he,
1038: Wommen desiren to have sovereynetee
1039: As wel over his housbond as hir love,
1040: And for to been in maistrie hym above.
1041: This is youre mooste desir, thogh ye me kille.
1042: Dooth as yow list; I am heer at youre wille.
1043: In al the court ne was ther wyf, ne mayde,
1044: Ne wydwe, that contraried that he sayde,
1045: But seyden he was worthy han his lyf.
1046: And with that word up stirte the olde wyf,
1047: Which that the knyght saugh sittynge on the grene:
1048: Mercy, quod she, my sovereyn lady queene!
1049: Er that youre court departe, do me right.
1050: I taughte this answere unto the knyght;
1051: For which he plighte me his trouthe there,
1052: The firste thyng that I wolde hym requere,
1053: He wolde it do, if it lay in his myghte.
1054: Bifore the court thanne preye I thee, sir knyght,
1055: Quod she, that thou me take unto thy wyf;
1056: For wel thou woost that I have kept thy lyf.
1057: If I seye fals, sey nay, upon thy fey!
1058: This knyght answerde, allas! and weylawey!
1059: I woot right wel that swich was my biheste.
1060: For goddes love, as chees a newe requeste!
1061: Taak al my good, and lat my body go.
1062: Nay, thanne, quod she, I shrewe us bothe two!
1063: For thogh that I be foul, and oold, and poore,
1064: I nolde for al the metal, ne for oore,
1065: That under erthe is grave, or lith above,
1066: But if thy wyf I were, and eek thy love.
1067: My love? quod he, nay, my dampnacioun!
1068: Allas! that any of my nacioun
1069: Sholde evere so foule disparaged be!
1070: But al for noght; the ende is this, that he
1071: Constreyned was, he nedes moste hire wedde;
1072: And taketh his olde wyf, and gooth to bedde.
1073: Now wolden som men seye, paraventure,
1074: That for my necligence I do no cure
1075: To tellen yow the joye and al th' array
1076: That at the feeste was that ilke day.
1077: To which thyng shortly answeren I shal:
1078: I seye ther nas no joye ne feeste at al;
1079: Ther nas but hevynesse and muche sorwe.
1080: For prively he wedded hire on the morwe,
1081: And al day after hidde hym as an owle,
1082: So wo was hym, his wyf looked so foule.
1083: Greet was the wo the knyght hadde in his thoght,
1084: Whan he was with his wyf abedde ybroght;
1085: He walweth and he turneth to and fro.
1086: His olde wyf lay smylynge everemo,
1087: And seyde, o deere housbonde, benedicitee!
1088: Fareth every knyght thys with his wyf as ye?
1089: Is this the lawe of kyng Arthures hous?
1090: Is every knyght of his so dangerous?
1091: I am youre owene love and eek youre wyf;
1092: I am she which that saved hath youre lyf,
1093: And, certes, yet ne dide I yow nevere unright;
1094: Why fare ye thus with me this firste nyght?
1095: Ye faren lyk a man had lost his wit.
1096: What is my gilt? for Goddes love, tel me it,
1097: And it shal been amende, if I may.
1098: Amended? quod this knyght, allas! nay, nay!
1099: It wol nat been amended nevere mo.
1100: Thou art so loothly, and so oold also,
1101: And therto comen of so lough a kynde,
1102: That litel wonder is thogh I walwe and wynde.
1103: So wolde God myn herte wolde breste!
1104: Is this, quod she, the cause of youre unreste?
1105: Ye, certeinly, quod he, no wonder is.
1106: Now, sire, quod she, I koude amende al this,
1107: If that me liste, er it were dayes thre,
1108: So wel ye myghte bere yow unto me.
1109: But, for ye speken of swich gentillesse
* "gentillesse" corresponds to modern English "nobility" and it was generally agreed in the Middle Ages that a truly noble person was noble by character, not by social status. Chaucer wrote a lyric poem on this theme and the ideas found here are also found in Dante as well as the Romance of the Rose.
1110: As is descended out of old richesse,
1111: That therfore sholden ye be gentil men,
1112: Swich arrogance is nat worth an hen.
1113: Looke who that is moost vertuous alway,
1114: Pryvee and apert, and moost entendeth ay
1115: To do the gentil dedes that he kan;
1116: Taak hym for the grettest gentil man.
1117: Crist wole we clayme of hym oure gentillesse,
1118: Nat of oure eldres for hire old richesse.
1119: For thogh they yeve us al hir heritage,
1120: For which we clayme to been of heigh parage,
1121: Yet may they nat biquethe, for no thyng,
1122: To noon of us hir vertuous lyvyng,
1123: That made hem gentil men ycalled be,
1124: And bad us folwen hem in swich degree.
1125: Wel kan the wise poete of Florence,
1126: That highte Dant, speken in this sentence.
1127: Lo, in swich maner rym is dantes tale:
1128: -- Ful selde up riseth by his brances smale
1129: Prowesse of man, for god, of his goodnesse,
1130: Wole that of hym we clayme oure gentillesse; --
* this is a translation from Dante's Divine Comedy, Purgatory 7. 121-3
1131: For of oure eldres may we no thyng clayme
1132: But temporel thyng, that man may hurte and mayme.
1133: Eek every wight woot this as wel as I,
1134: If gentillesse were planted natureelly
1135: Unto a certeyn lynage doun the lyne,
1136: Pryvee and apert, thanne wolde they nevere fyne
1137: To doon of gentillesse the faire office;
1138: They myghte do no vileynye or vice.
1139: Taak fyr, and ber it in the derkeste hous
1140: Bitwix this and the mount of kaukasous,
1141: And lat men shette the dores and go thenne;
1142: Yet wole the fyr as faire lye and brenne
1143: As twenty thousand men myghte it biholde;
1144: His office natureel ay wol it holde,
1145: Up peril of my lyf, til that it dye.
1146: Heere may ye se wel how that genterye
1147: Is nat annexed to possessioun,
1148: Sith folk ne doon hir operacioun
1149: Alwey, as dooth the fyr, lo, in his kynde.
1150: For, God it woot, men may wel often fynde
1151: A lordes sone do shame and vileynye;
1152: And he that wole han pris of his gentrye,
1153: For he was boren of a gentil hous,
1154: And hadde his eldres noble and vertuous,
1155: And nel hymselven do no gentil dedis,
1156: Ne folwen his gentil auncestre that deed is,
1157: He nys nat gentil, be he duc or erl;
1158: For vileyns synful dedes make a cherl.
* Similar ideas are found in Dante Canzone (preceding Convivio 4)
1159: For gentillesse nys but renomee
1160: Of thyne auncestres, for hire heigh bountee,
1161: Which is a strange thyng to thy persone.
1162: Thy gentillesse cometh fro God allone.
1163: Thanne comth oure verray gentillesse of grace;
1164: It was no thyng biquethe us with oure place.
1165: Thenketh how noble, as seith Valerius,
1166: Was thilke Tullius Hostillius,
1167: That out of poverte roos to heigh noblesse.
* Valerius is Valerius Maximus; there was a legend that Tullius Hostillius, the 3rd king of Rome, in the 7th century BC, began life as a herdsman
1168: Reedeth Senek, and redeth eek Boece;
* Seneca and Boethius were obvious moral authorities; it is not certain that any particular passge is meant to be recalled
1169: Ther shul ye seen expres that it no drede is
1170: That he is gentil that dooth gentil dedis.
1171: And therfore, leeve housbonde, thus conclude:
1172: Al were it that myne auncestres were rude,
1173: Yet may the hye God, and so hope I,
1174: Grante me grace to lyven vertuously.
1175: Thanne am I gentil, whan that I bigynne
1176: To lyven vertuously and weyve synne.
1177: And ther as ye of poverte me repreeve,
1178: The hye God, on whom that we bileeve,
1179: In wilful poverte chees to lyve his lyf.
1180: And certes every man, mayden, or wyf,
1181: May understonde that Jhesus, hevene kyng,
1182: Ne wolde nat chese a vicious lyvyng.
1183: Glad poverte is an honest thyng, certeyn;
1184: This wole Senec and othere clerkes seyn.
* Most of the ideas in this passage are found in Seneca's writings, that Chaucer probably knew from a book of extracted maxims made by John of Wales
1185: Whoso that halt hym payd of his poverte,
1186: I holde hym riche, al hadde he nat a sherte.
1187: He that coveiteth is a povre wight,
1188: For he wolde han that is nat in his myght;
1189: But he that noght hath, ne coveiteth have,
1190: Is riche, although ye holde hym but a knave.
1191: Verray poverte, it syngeth proprely;
1192: Juvenal seith of poverte myrily:
1193: -- The povre man, whan he goth by the weye,
1194: Bifore the theves he may synge and pleye.
* Juvenal (A.D. 60 -140) was a Roman poet. The quotation is from his Satires 10.20, 21
1195: Poverte is hateful good and, as I gesse,
1196: A ful greet bryngere out of bisynesse;
1197: A greet amendere eek of sapience
1198: To hym that taketh it in pacience.
1199: Poverte is this, although it seme alenge,
1200: Possessioun that no wight wol chalenge.
1201: Poverte ful ofte, whan a man is lowe,
1202: Maketh his God and eek hymself to knowe.
1203: Poverte a spectacle is, as thynketh me,
1204: Thurgh which he may his verray freendes see.
1205: And therfore, sire, syn that I noght yow greve,
1206: Of my poverte namoore ye me repreve.
1207: No, sire, of elde ye repreve me;
1208: And certes, sire, thogh noon auctoritee
1209: Were in no book, ye gentils of honour
1210: Seyn that men sholde an oold wight doon favour,
1211: And clepe hym fader, for youre gentillesse;
1212: And auctours shal I fynde, as I gesse.
1213: Now ther ye seye that I am foul and old,
1214: Than drede you noght to been a cokewold;
1215: For filthe and eelde, also moot I thee,
1216: Been grete wardeyns upon chastitee.
1217: But nathelees, syn I knowe youre delit,
1218: I shal fulfille youre worldly appetit.
1219: Chese now, quod she, oon of thise thynges tweye:
1220: To han me foul and old til that I deye,
1221: And be to yow a trewe, humble wyf,
1222: And nevere yow displese in al my lyf;
1223: Or elles ye wol han me yong and fair,
1224: And take youre aventure of the repair
1225: That shal be to youre hous by cause of me,
1226: Or in som oother place, may wel be.
1227: Now chese yourselven, wheither that yow liketh.
1228: This knyght avyseth hym and sore siketh,
1229: But atte laste he seyde in this manere:
1230: My lady and my love, and wyf so deere,
1231: I put me in youre wise governance;
1232: Cheseth youreself which may be moost plesance,
1233: And moost honour to yow and me also.
1234: I do no fors the wheither of the two;
1235: For as yow liketh, it suffiseth me.
1236: Thanne have I gete of yow maistrie, quod she,
1237: Syn I may chese and governe as me lest?
1238: Ye, certes, wyf, quod he, I holde it best.
1239: Kys me, quod she, we be no lenger wrothe;
1240: For, by my trouthe, I wol be to yow bothe,
1241: This is to seyn, ye, bothe fair and good.
1242: I prey to God that I moote sterven wood,
1243: But I to yow be also good and trewe
1244: As evere was wyf, syn that the world was newe.
1245: And but I be to-morn as fair to seene
1246: As any lady, emperice, or queene,
1247: That is bitwixe the est and eke the west,
1248: Dooth with my lyf and deth right as yow lest.
1249: Cast up the curtyn, looke how that it is.
1250: And whan the knyght saugh verraily al this,
1251: That she so fair was, and so yong therto,
1252: For joye he hente hire in his armes two,
1253: His herte bathed in a bath of blisse.
1254: A thousand tyme a-rewe he gan hire kisse,
1255: And she obeyed hym in every thyng
1256: That myghte doon hym plesance or likyng.
1257: And thys they lyve unto hir lyves ende
1258: In parfit joye; and Jhesu Crist us sende
1259: Housbondes meeke, yonge, and fressh abedde,
1260: And grace t' overbyde hem that we wedde;
1261: And eek I praye Jhesu shorte hir lyves
1262: That wol nat be governed by hir wyves;
1263: And olde and angry nygardes of dispence,
1264: God sende hem soone verray pestilence!